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Isaacs, S. The Nature and Function of Phantasy. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 29, Ivey, G. Enactment controversies: A critical review of current debates. Jacobson, E. The self and the object world. New York: International Universities Press. Jahromi, L. Developmental Psychology, 40 4 , Janis, I. Victims of groupthink: A psychological study of foreign-policy decisions and fiascoes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. Jones, E. Kenny, D. Bringing up baby: The psychoanalytic infant comes of age. London: Karnac. From Id to intersubjectivity: Talking about the talking cure with master clinicians.
Phantasizing infancy: Psychoanalytic and scientific perspectives. Gipps Eds.
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Oxford: Oxford University Press. Kernberg, O. A contribution to the ego-psychological critique of the Kleinian school. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 50, Technical considerations in the treatment of borderline personality organization. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 24, Institutional probelms of psychoanalytic education. Omnipotence in the transference and in the countertransference. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 70 3 , International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 89 3 , Kilborne, B. Superego Dilemmas. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 24 2 , Kirsner, D. Psychoanalysis and its discontents.
Psychoanalytic Psychology, 21 3 , Klein, M. The psychological principles of infant analysis. London: Hogarth Press. On the criteria for the termination of a psycho-analysis. Envy and gratitude and other works — Edited by Masud R. Khan Vol. Knoblauch, S. Beyond the word in psychoanalysis: The unspoken dialogue.
Kohut, H. The analysis of self. LeCroy, D. Freud: The first evolutionary psychologist? Lothane, Z. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 23 4 , Magagna, J. Three years infant observation with Esther Bick. Thomson-Salo Ed. Mahler, M. On human symbiosis and the vicissitudes of individuation. Mayer, J. Journal for the Theory of Social Behaviour, 31 4 , Menninger, K.
Theory of psychoanalytic technique 2 ed. Miliora, M. Trauma, dissociation, and somatization: A self-psychological perspective. Mills, J. Structuralization, trauma, and attachment. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 21 1 , Mitchell, S. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 8 4 , Mitrani, J. Introduction to the life and work of Frances Tustin In J. Mitrani Eds. Muller, R. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 46 1 , Naso, R. Rethinking trauma: A critical view of invalidation. Ogden, T. On the concept of an autistic-contiguous position.
Int J Psychoanal, 70 Pt 1 , A new reading of the origins of object-relations theory. On holding and containing, being and dreaming.
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London, England: Karnac Books. Oliner, M. The unsolved puzzle of trauma. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 69 1 , Opdal, L. Erotization of the analytic situation. Psychoanalytic Review, 30 1 , Pauli-Pott, U. Peterson, E. Tristan Tzara: Dada and surational theorist.
New Brunswick, N. Piers, C. Contemporary trauma theory and its relation to character. Pine, F. The four psychologies of psychoanalysis and their place in clinical work. Quinodoz, J. Rangell, L. An analysis of the course of psychoanalysis: The case for a unitary theory. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 23 2 , Riviere, J. General introduction to developments in psycho-analysis. Rogers, B. Fifteen Greek plays B. Rogers, Trans. Rotenberg, C. Self and talent-treatment considerations. Psychoanalytic Inquiry, 26, Sandler, J.
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London: Maresfield. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 64, Schafer, R. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 63, Segal, H. Introduction to the work of Melanie Klein 2 ed. Seligman, S. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 19 5 , Seso-Simic, D. Translational Neuroscience, 1 2 , Slochower, J. Holding and psychoanalysis. Holding and the evolving maternal metaphor.
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Sokol, B. Spitz, R. Freud Ed. Anxiety in infancy: A study of its manifestations in the first year of life. Relevancy of direct infant observation. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 5, The psychogenic diseases in infancy—An attempt at their etiologic classification.
Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 6, Spurling, L. Sterba, R. Character and resistance. Psychoanalytic Quarterly, 20, Stern, D. One way to build a clinically relevant baby. Stewart, H. Varieties of transference interpretations: An object-relations view. Stolorow, R. Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, 29 2 , The contextuality of emotional experience. Psychoanalytic treatment: An intersubjective approach. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press. Strachey, J. Sullivan, H. The interpersonal theory of psychiatry. New York: Norton. Symington, N. Mitrani Ed. Thomson-Salo, F. Infant observation: Creating transformative relationships.
Tustin, F. Autistic processes. Journal of Child Psychotherapy, 2, Vygotsky, L. Thought and language Vol. Wallerstein, R. Westen, D. The Language of Psychoanalytic Discourse. Psychoanalytic Dialogues, 12 6 , White, J. Generation: Preoccupation and conflict in contemporary psychoanalysis. Winnicott, D.
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Withdrawal and regression. International Journal of Psychoanalysis, 36, The theory of the parent-infant relationship. Keywords: attachment theory , Empathy , Fragmentation of psychoanalytic theory , Freud , Object relations theory , Paradigm plurality , psychoanalysis , Psychoanalytic technique , Relational psychotherapy. Powered by WordPress and the Graphene Theme. Psychotherapy and Counselling Journal of Australia. To this end, I critique the cul-de-sacs into which some psychoanalytic scholars have directed us, and conclude with the hope that the current state of affairs can be remedied.
Freud used each of these three facets of psychoanalysis iteratively to progress our understanding of human mental functioning. This insight underpinned a paradigm shift in thinking about the mental functioning of human beings, for which there was a scant vocabulary and embryonic conceptualizations. The theory that organized early clinical observations gradually unfolded, many precepts of which have entered the psychological lexicon as givens, concepts that are now taken for granted.
Three of these bedrock concepts are the existence of the Unconscious, the notion of hidden meaning and the idea of repression. The concept of repression is essential, not only to an understanding of the Unconscious but to psychoanalysis itself. In fact, Freud viewed repression as the mental process that creates the Unconscious. The Unconscious refers to the existence of thoughts and feelings of which we are not aware that motivate our strivings and behaviour. It is the locus of dynamic psychic activity — the place where wishes, impulses and drives reside, a place not beholden to the realities of logic or time or the constraints of socially acceptable behaviour.
Repression is a defence mechanism that keeps unconscious material out of conscious awareness. However, the excluded material continues to influence behaviour because it is so emotionally charged that it demands expression. Prior to , Freud believed that most neurotic symptoms were related to the repressed experiences of infantile sexuality.
After this time, Freud gave primacy to the experience of trauma, a position that became a central tenet of subsequent psychoanalytical theorizing and speculation Miliora, ; Mills, ; Muller, ; Naso, ; Oliner, The traumas of war and the constant imminent threat to survival must surely come closest to repeating the feeling of infant helplessness and its associated anxiety. The proximal trauma triggers the distal archaic infant anxieties, resulting in a traumatic neurosis. Freud understood the symptoms, including repeated nightmares and reliving of the war trauma as an attempt to master the trauma psychologically.
The helplessness and dependency that we all experience as infants are re-activated in subsequent experiences of threat, anxiety and loss. Freud thus proposed that infantile traumas are universal and differ only in their intensity between individuals and that such traumas have an impact on all subsequent development. Thus the desire for contact and attachment is born of fear and is thus a secondary instinct.
This position was subsequently challenged by the attachment theorists Bowlby, , In summary, the affect-trauma model proposed that the symptoms of hysterical patients had hidden psychological meaning related to major emotional traumata that the patient had repressed Freud, a, b, c, d. In The Unconscious, Freud revisited and reworked his ideas.
Freud subsequently renamed his depth psychology, metapsychology, in which all psychological phenomena were examined from three different perspectives: topographical, economic and dynamic. The topographical analysis identified the system in which the psychic action was occurring; the economic analysis assessed the quantity of psychic energy being expended and the dynamic analysis explored the conflict between the pressures from instinctual drives wishes, strivings and the ego defences that are deployed to prevent the release of the forbidden material from repression Quinodoz, This model re-focused attention on the importance of the social environment and the role of relationships with primary caregivers Mayer, Freud proposed three structures, which he termed id, ego, and superego.
The id, the home of unconscious drives and impulses, operates according to a primary process that is very different from conscious thought, or secondary process thinking. It has no allegiance to rationality, chronology or order, and is fantasy-driven via visual imagery. As the child develops, so does the ego, the reality tester, the rational part of the personality. The ego protects itself from the Unconscious by developing repressing forces defences mechanisms that keep repressed material from breaking through to consciousness Freud, Gradually the child learns to delay immediate gratification, to compromise, accept limits and cope with inevitable disappointments.
Freud defined the ego in two ways; firstly, as the structure needing protection from the Unconscious; secondly, as the repressing force that keeps disturbing material at bay. Since the process of repression is itself unconscious, there must be an unconscious part of the ego. With this understanding came a change in the understanding of the role of anxiety. In his early theorizing, anxiety was understood to be related to the fear of discharge of unacceptable sexual or aggressive drives.
Subsequently, Freud understood anxiety to be, simultaneously, an affective signal for danger and the motivation for psychologically defending against the perceived danger. Freud believed at first that repression caused anxiety; he subsequently came to the view that it was anxiety that motivated repression Freud, When an individual senses one of these danger-situations, motivation for defending against the anxiety is triggered.
Freud distinguished between traumatic primary anxiety, which he defined as a state of psychological helplessness in the face of overwhelmingly painful affect, such as fear of abandonment or attack, and signal secondary anxiety, which is a form of anticipatory anxiety that alerts us to the danger of re-experiencing the original traumatic state by repeating it in a weakened form such that measures to protect against re-traumatization can be taken.
He also revised his view about what was repressed, concluding that it was not traumatic experiences or memories but conflicted impulses, wishes and desires with their attendant anxiety that motivate repression. Hence, Freud shifted his focus from external trauma to a focus on inner conflict as the core of psychoanalytic theory and psychoanalysis Eagle, Contemporary psychoanalytic theory reversed this shift, re-focusing on external mostly interpersonal trauma as the locus of psychopathology.
According to Freud, the superego develops between the ages of four and six years. Subsequently, psychoanalytic scholars tried to integrate the topographical and structural models, but a discussion of this is beyond the scope of this paper — see Sandler and Sandler for a detailed exposition. The schematic representation Figure 1 below captures the essential elements of the integrated topographical and structural aspects of this psychoanalytic meta-theory.
Many of the ideas that were later to form the bedrock of psychoanalytic theory were present in these early writings; they were clearly evident in The Psychotherapy of Hysteria Freud, d in which the concepts of the Unconscious, resistance, defence, transference and the notion of the analytic attitude were introduced. His technique was intuitive and evolutionary; theory followed to explain the observed clinical phenomena.
Freud himself viewed this discovery as pivotal to the psychoanalytic process. Freud a defined transference as. In the transference the analyst-patient relationship comes to resemble the mother-child relationship Freud, Transference phenomena are unconscious and from the outset, serve both the functions of resistance and revelation. Transference is encouraged in the analytic situation through the adoption of an accepting and non-judgmental stance. It has a long history in the arts beginning with its first recorded appearance in a comic play The Clouds by the ancient Greek playwright, Aristophanes, in which the subject was instructed by the character playing Socrates to lie on the couch and say whatever came into his mind Rogers, In the second stage of technique development, Freud abandoned both hypnosis and abreaction, replacing them with a new focus on free association and the analysis of the resistance.
The analysand is instructed to allow a free flow of associations, emotions, and images to emerge. When a defensive blocking of those associations occurs within the analysand, this blocking is called repression. When it is motivated by the analyst-analysand dyad via the transference, it is called resistance. Freud hoped that the technique of free association would simultaneously expose and undo both repression and resistance Boag, Forgot your login information? In: Essentials of Clinical Social Work. Chapter 3: Psychoanalytic Theory. Subject: Social Work Practice general.
Perlman, F. Psychoanalytic theory. Brandell Essentials of clinical social work pp. Perlman, Fredric T. Jerrold R. SAGE Knowledge. Have you created a personal profile? Login or create a profile so that you can create alerts and save clips, playlists, and searches. Please log in from an authenticated institution or log into your member profile to access the email feature. T he historical relationship between clinical social work and psychoanalysis is both fascinating and extremely complex.
Classical psychoanalytic theory and, later, ego psychology stand in relation to social work theory and practice in much the same way as the theory of relativity stands in relation to modern theoretical physics. In each case, the introduction of a new and radical theory has had far-reaching ramifications for the existing framework of knowledge. In this chapter, psychoanalytic ideas and their unique contributions and adaptations to the practice of clinical social work will be discussed and explored in depth.
Psychoanalytic theory, of course, is not a unified body of knowledge; rather, it is composed of multiple theories, models, and schemata pertaining to development,