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If shadows facilitate seeing objects, they do so in the sense that our retinae facilitate seeing objects. Our retinae are not parts of the objects that we see, though they enable us to see parts and so to see objects.

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When one ball hits another, causing the second to roll away, this is a causal process. But the shadow of the one ball hitting the other, and the second ball rolling away is not. Silhouettes, we might think, are different insofar as they are actually parts of their objects. When we see the silhouette of one ball hitting another, and the second rolling off, we are seeing via a genuine causal process, and so if we can only see objects via genuine causal processes we can see objects by seeing their silhouettes, but not by seeing their shadows.

The mechanism that allows us to see in uncontroversial cases of seeing crucially makes use of our retinae. But the light patterns hitting our retinae—like the patterns of darkness hitting the floor in a shadow—are an epiphenomenon caused by changing conditions in the world. But there is perhaps a more sophisticated development of this argument, building on the idea that seeing essentially requires tracking a causal process.

Suppose Mary stabs Bob, leaving a knife sticking out of his chest. This is a causal process. Here one might object that we could create the same sort of deception with a silhouette standing with a knife in the appropriate position behind Bob. The reply must be something like this: In the case of the shadow, our careful positioning of the knife has literally changed the shadow.

Thus, the knife positioning merely creates the illusion that Bob has been stabbed in the chest. So I can see Bob by seeing the illusory silhouette. By contrast, when Mary holds a knife up in the shadow case, she literally changes the shadow, as opposed to creating an illusion of difference. So the shadow fails to track Bob. Suppose you hold a straight stick above a pond, and then put the stick into the water at an angle so that it appears bent.

The image projected onto my retinae from the stick differs between the two cases. In the second case, the light rays are bent as they pass from the water into the air, causing a change in what is projected onto the retinae. What is projected onto the retinae does not merely appear to change as one might think the silhouette merely appears to change ; it really does change just as the shadow really does change. Nevertheless, we see the stick. What we see throuch shadows can leave out a lot of detail. It leaves out color and depth.

And because of the sparseness of what it conveys, it fails to represent differentiations between layered objects. Our visual impressions when we see objects can be incredibly sparse. So perhaps where our reasoning about shadows has gone wrong has been in mistaking sparse tracking that gives us a muddy picture for a lack of tracking. Likewise, what our retina tracks is light reflected off objects as it is when it hits the cornea. So just as we see through our eyes, mirrors, film, photographs, and silhouettes, we can see through shadows.

I want to conclude with one final, surprising way in which we can see things. No matter how realistic the paining is, how closely it happens to match reality, and how sincere the painter was in his belief that he was capturing reality, we are not literally seeing through to the objects depicted in the painting. Kendall Walton, who famously defends the thesis that mirrors, photographs, and film are transparent, denies the transparency of handmade pictures on the grounds that they do not exhibit a natural causal dependency on the objects depicted.

Lopes Photographs are counterfactually dependent on the scenes they portray: if the scene had been different the photograph would have been different. The same is often true of paintings, in particular when the artist painted from life aiming to portray accurately what he saw. But … a painting from life depends counterfactually on the scene because the beliefs of the painter depend counterfactually on it. The painter paints what he thinks he sees. The photographer captures with his camera whatever is in front of it, regardless of what he thinks is there. Walton , Harold has no imaginative capacity beyond a fantastic visual memory.

After eating lunch in a blue room, with a red table, and yellow flowers in a silver vase, Harold can remember the room in perfect detail. But Harold lacks any sort of recombination or distortion capacity. The difference is that the images Harold produces are in part the result of his beliefs.

When Harold sits before his canvas, looking out at a scene, he selects a particular shade of blue because he believes it to match the ocean. And, thanks to his amazing memory and powers of discernment, he is always right about these things. Both pictures are true to life—there really was a moment that, from the right angle, a human agent would perceive as qualitatively identical to the two images.

Both pictures would have been appropriately different had the scene at that moment been different.

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For both pictures, we can infer from the fact that they exist that a scene qualitatively like them really did occur. We know from the way that cameras are designed that they will only show some feature F if they were confronted with F. And we know from the way that Harold is designed that he will only paint F if he is confronted with F. How could it possibly make any difference to seeing whether the causal mechanism involved in tracking F involves the particular complex functional state known as belief, or merely a less complicated functional state of the sort used by the digital camera?

Likewise, a camera will produce an image of a unicorn if and only if it is in a certain functional state—a functional state that stores information as of a unicorn in view of its lens. Suppose that, prior to the development of cameras, journalists had dragged Harold about and commanded him to paint. So there seems to be no principled basis for denying that we can see through images where the causal process producing the image involves belief. Still, Harold is a very peculiar painter.

How far can we extend these lessons? Are there actual handmade pictures that we can see through? First consider Anne. Anne is just like Harold insofar as she has a fantastic visual memory, with no further imaginative capacities and no ability to produce paintings that intentionally diverge from her beliefs about reality. Anne was sitting with Harold and the photographer on election night and drew the same scene of Barack and Michelle holding hands. Again, the conclusion that we literally see Barack and Michelle is surprisingly difficult to avoid.

We have seen that detail and accuracy are not essential for seeing. Both Harold and Anne are highly unusual, in that their lack of imaginative powers has left them unable to create paintings that deliberately vary from the world. In this way, they differ from most painters, who can and do construct and embellish. When I look at a photograph, I have a good reason to believe that the picture was created by way of a certain sort of process that preserved information in much the way a mirror or a double-retina might. Of course, I may not always be able to tell this. Imagine that white bubbles periodically appear in the air.

I have a camera that—though usually highly reliable—occasionally leaves white circles in images, qualitatively identical to the bubbles. I might sometimes be unable to distinguish whether a picture taken with this camera is reliable in the relevant sort of way. Hence, I may sometimes be unable to tell whether I am seeing through the photograph to white bubbles in the air.

Likewise, the possibility that a painter have hallucinations or illusions that affect their beliefs and thereby affect their paintings does not pose a challenge to our seeing through paintings in the good cases. Intrinsic features of the paintings will not reveal to us which paintings facilitate seeing through. So we will sometimes be left unsure as to whether we are literally seeing the Obamas or not.

Having granted that the causal mechanisms facilitating seeing can include beliefs, we find that other ways of seeing open up. If beliefs can be part of the mechanism through which information is transferred, then we can even construct cases in which a scientist directly stimulating your brain facilitates seeing. Your eyes have been hopelessly damaged in an accident. You sit in a small room with a doctor who is determined to enable you to see and a monkey. The doctor understands exactly how light is processed between the eyes and the visual cortex, and has become skilled in replicating this process.

The end result of this process is that you have visual impressions exactly like those the doctor herself is experiencing. She is effectively functioning as part of a large, diffuse prosthetic eye. In fact, I agree, and I do not think that this is at odds with anything argued in this paper. I have argued simply that we can see through pictures, shadows, and mirrors, not that we must or even that we commonly do. The information must be processed in such a way that we seem to be confronted with the tracked objects in the world.

The wood is the object of my action; the axe is the vehicle. Likewise, in perception, Huemer thinks, we can draw a distinction between the object of awareness the thing perceived and the vehicle of awareness the means by which the object is perceived: e. This analogy is helpful, but I think it should be taken further. Consider two things I might do with an axe and some wood: I might use the axe to cut the wood. This makes the wood the object.

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The object of what? Of cutting. Alternatively, I might use the axe as part of a ritual blessing of the Wood Spirit. This makes the Wood Spirit the object. Of blessing. Likewise, my brain might do different things with the information hitting my optic nerve. Consider two cases. In the first, I look at a sunset and see the sunset.

In the first case, my brain processes information V from my optic nerve as revealing something about tracked feature of the world, W. This makes W the object. Object of what? Of perception. In the second case, my brain processes information V as revealing something about me , not about the world.

This makes V the object. Of introspection. As with the wood and the axe, the details of the action that is performed are essential to making sense of what plays the role of the object. Intuitively, I might either use the mirror to look at the flowers, or I might attend to the reflection itself.

Following the above pattern, it seems that my brain might process information M—coming to my optic nerve via the mirror—as revealing something about the flowers. This makes the flowers the object. Alternatively, my brain might process information M as revealing something about the mirror, not the flowers. This makes the reflection in the mirror the object. The same might be said for the different ways that we could engage with a photograph, shadow, or hand-made picture. More is relevant to whether we see through a particular photograph than just the photograph and the tracking relations it and the observer stands into the world.

A full account of how information is processed in perception is beyond the scope of this paper. But I want to conclude by gesturing at several reasons for thinking that contingent features of the way we process information from our optic nerve can be relevant to what, or even whether, we see. Consider two children arguing. Our intuitions balk at the idea of literally seeing through pictures and shadows, though we are perfectly happy with the idea of seeing face-to-face, and literally seeing through mirrors seems plausible to many people.

This difference seems to go hand-in-hand with a difference between how readily we think of the mediating images projections on retina, reflections, shadows, pictures as things in their own right. We also seem less inclined to psychologically process information from still images as revealing the world to us. Again, this seems to be due to contingent features how our brains typically process visual information, rather than to any principled difference between momentary and extended visual inputs.

Perhaps cameras are set up directly behind the screen, ensuring that it functions just as a window. Now imagine that this room is pitch black, except for a pulsing strobe light, resulting in visual experiences as though of still images. If we saw through the Image Window originally, we surely continue to see through it, just as we continue to see the decor of the room.

The experience of being in the strobe light room with the Image Window is completely indistinguishable from the experience of being in the strobe light room with the Still Image Window. What lesson should we take from this? One possibility is that our brains implicitly assume that visual experiences presenting the world to us will be temporally extended. In order for us to see in cases where our visual inputs are not temporally extended, there must be some explanation for why this default assumption is overridden.

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In the case of the Still Image Window, the strobe light might be thought to provide this explanation. It simply reveals a contingent feature of our psychology, that makes us unlikely in normal circumstances to see through photographs and paintings. So there are differences in how we think about and engage with mediating images in cases that we intuitively think facilitate seeing e. We now have a basis for thinking that we often process information from different mediating images differently.

Importantly, the relevant information-processing seems to be subpersonal, rather than mediated by our explicit beliefs. When Gullible Gary goes to the zoo, and his friend tells him that all the animals are hallucinations, he comes to believe that the tiger is really a hallucination. Fortunately, this is not in conflict with the basic idea that what our brains do with the information they take in from the environment how they process the information matters for what and whether we see. We can see through mirrors, shadows, film, photographs, and some handmade pictures.

But this does not mean that we always, or even typically, do so, as contingent quirks of our psychology may mean that we sometimes fail to engage with these mediating images in the way required for seeing. Does this undercut the interestingness of the thesis that we can see through photographs, etc.? Not so. Second, even if it were to turn out that we rarely or never engaged with these mediating images in the way required for seeing, we have a surprising analysis of why we fail to see in these cases, which is at odds with the conventional wisdom.

There is no principled barrier to seeing through photographs contra Currie and Carroll , shadows contra Sorensen , or appropriately made handmade pictures contra Walton If anything prevents us from seeing through these mediators, it is a contingent quirk of how we sometimes engage with them. One may plausibly be able to develop a similar account of other sensory modalities.

Can you hear George Gershwin playing his own music by listening to a recording? Do phones and mp3 players extend our sensory organs into the world and across time? This paper does not attempt to present a complete theory of object perception. Just as the best work in applied ethics develops important and surprising insights regarding how we should think about particular moral cases, without either presupposing or seeking to establish a complete moral theory, so the ambition of this paper is to develop important and surprising insights regarding particular cases of putative perception.

Of course, while not itself in the business of developing a theory of object perception, this paper will—if its central claims are correct—have important implications for the correct account of seeing. Ella was a likable enough heroine, though I felt like all of the characters in this story lacked a spark of any kind in their personality. They were all fairly bland, but she and Jeremy at least shared some moments where I felt there was legitimately something between them.

I liked the creepiness factor as Ella faced night after night of frightening dreams, all centered around the mysterious mirror that made her terrified to look at it. As she began to decipher what her dreams meant, she was blind to the real-life threat she had right in front of her. Little did she know just how coveted her newfound property was, or just how far those who staked a claim to it would go to have it back.

Ella put her trust in the wrong man and turned away the one who really cared to help her, but it was understandable given she just didn't know who to turn to. The suspenseful moments were rather far-fetched, but they were interesting shifts in the plot and they definitely helped me appreciate Jeremy's character more. Overall, for a paranormal story with adult characters I was expecting a lot more; more chills, more emotion, more character development, and more unexpected and otherworldly twists in the plot.

I think younger readers would appreciate this because it's an easy read without any racy or explicit scenes, and it does have an eerie edge to it, but it just wasn't for me. I was given an ebook copy of this book to read for review on behalf of The Autumn Review. November 1, - Published on Amazon.

Mirror of Shadows is a modern day paranormal mystery with a quasi-gothic feel. Recent college graduate Ella McKaye returns home suddenly because her beloved grandmother has passed away. Although devastated, Ella doesn't take much time to grieve as her grandmother has left her a handsome inheritance which includes an old, rundown home called Grey Manor. Ella immediately moves into the very large home because her mother, Patricia, kicks her out in anger. A clause in the will prevents Ella from her giving or sharing money with her chronic alcohol and drug abusing mother.

With the guidance and recommendation of the kind family attorney, Marlin, who administers her trust, Ella hires a surly, mysterious handyman, Jeremy, and begins restoring the manor to its former grandeur. Ella insists that Jeremy stay in one of many extra bedrooms to accommodate a more rapid transformation of Grey Manor. Twinges of feeling between Ella and Jeremy start almost immediately, but being the tough guy that he is, Jeremy acts disinterested and withdrawn.

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Within days of their co-habitation, another man appears in Ella's life; suddenly she finds herself in a love triangle of sorts with handyman Jeremy and much wealthier out-of-towner Matt. In the midst of all these new relationships, Ella must also contend with a series of nightmares, all courtesy of a scary looking mirror in the hallway. Attempts at banishing the artifact all fail. The anxiety of the frightening dreams and visions are compounded by a series of accidents which has the male characters pointing fingers at each other.

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